نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده مهندسی برق- واحد نجف آباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نجف آباد، ایران

2 مرکز تحقیقات ریز شبکه های هوشمند- واحد نجف آباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نجف آباد، ایران

چکیده

با اضافه ‏شدن منابع تولید پراکنده به ساختار شبکه‏های ‏توزیع، در زمان ‏وقوع ‏خطا، میزان و جهت جریان عبوری از حفاظت‏های اصلی و پشتیبان تغییر می‏کند و هماهنگی بین آنها را برهم می‏زند. در این ‏میان منابع مبتنی بر ژنراتور سنکرون، نسبت به زمان رفع خطا حساس‏ترند و ممکن است پایداری‏شان به خطر بیفتد. با توجه به اینکه زمان رفع خطا به عملکرد سیستم حفاظتی وابسته است، این مقاله با بررسی انواع ترکیب‏ها برای المان­های حفاظتی (رله-رله، رله-ریکلوزر و ریکلوزر-فیوز)، مناسب‏ترین ترکیب حفاظتی برای سیستم­های دارای ژنراتور سنکرون را پیشنهاد می‏کند. از سوی دیگر به ارائه راه­کاری اشاره می­شود که به­وسیله آن می‏توان ضمن حفظ پایداری نوسان اول ژنراتورهای سنکرون موجود در شبکه توزیع، هماهنگی بین حفاظت اصلی و پشتیبان را در زمان وقوع خطا و در حضور این منابع حفظ نمود. در این راه­کار نیازی به تغییر و یا طراحی مجدد سیستم حفاظتی وجود ندارد. روش پیشنهادی با فعال‏سازی مشخصه آنی در کنار منحنی مشخصه رله موجود در سیستم، قادر است هماهنگی بین حفاظت‏ها و پایداری‏گذرای ژنراتورهای سنکرون موجود در سیستم توزیع را به­ازای ضریب نفوذ صفر تا 100 درصد برقرار نماید. نتایج پیاده‏سازی روش پیشنهادی بر روی سیستم تست استاندارد 33 باسه IEEE در محیط نرم­افزار ایتپ (ETAP) توانایی آن‏ را تایید می‏نماید.

چکیده تصویری

هماهنگی تجهیزات حفاظتی در ریزشبکه‏ های مبتنی بر ژنراتور سنکرون با در نظر گرفتن حفظ پایداری نوسان اول

تازه های تحقیق

استفاده از روش تحلیل حساسیت مسیر حالت به منظور تعیین CCT در ریزشبکه‏های الکتریکی

در نظر گرفتن پایداری گذرای ژنراتورهای سنکرون، محدودیتهای حفاظتی و حد حرارتی خطوط برای تنظیم پارامترهای سیستم حفاظتی.

وابسته نبودن روش به میزان سطح نفوذ منابعDG  در محدوده صفر تا 100 درصد.

عدم نیاز به هرگونه سرمایه­گذاری جدید، مانند جایگزینی، نصب دستگاه­های جدید و طراحی جدید آنلاین توابع کنترل

قابلیت پیاده‏سازی روش روی انواع مختلف رله­های قدیم و جدید

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Coordination of Protection Equipment in Synchronous Generator-Based Microgrids with Regard to Maintaining First Swing Stability

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan Fayazi 1
  • Majid Moazzami 1
  • Bahador Fani 1
  • Ghazanfar Shahgholian 2

1 Department of Electrical Engineering- Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

2 Smart Microgrid Research Center- Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

چکیده [English]

With the addition of distributed generation resources to the structure of distribution networks, at the time of the fault, the amount and direction of flow through the main and backup protections changes and disrupts the coordination between them. Synchronous generator-based sources, meanwhile, are more sensitive to error fixing times and their stability may be compromised. Since the troubleshooting time depends on the performance of the protection system, this paper proposes the most suitable protection combination for systems with synchronous generators by examining the types of combinations for protection elements (relay-relay, relay-recloser and recloser-fuse). Slowly On the other hand, this paper presents a solution by which, while maintaining the stability of the first oscillation of synchronous generators in the distribution network, the coordination between the main protection and the backup in the event of an error and in the presence of these sources can be maintained. There is no need to change or redesign the protection system in this solution. The proposed method, by activating the instantaneous characteristic along with the characteristic curve of the relay in the system, was able to establish coordination between the protections and transient stability of the synchronous generators in the distribution system for a penetration coefficient of 0 to 100%. The results of the implementation of the proposed method on the standard 33-bus IEEE test system in the ETAP software environment confirm its capability.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Coordination of protection equipment
  • Distribution system
  • Microgrid
  • stability of synchronous generator

Citation: H. Fayazi, M. Moazzami, B. Fani,G. Shahgholian,"Coordination of protection equipment in synchronous generator-based microgrids with regard to maintaining first swing stability", Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology, vol. 14, no. 53, pp. 1-14, June 2023 (in Persian).

[1] E. Abbaspour, B. Fani, E. Heydarian-Forushani, “A bi-level multi agent based protection scheme for distribution networks with distributed generation”, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 112, pp. 209-220, Nov. 2019 (doi: 10.1016/j.ijepes.2019.05.001).
[2] M. Moazzami, M. Ghanbari, J. Moradi, H. Shahinzadeh, G.B. Gharehpetian, H. Mogoei, "Probabilistic SCUC considering implication of compressed air energy storage on redressing intermittent load and stochastic wind generation", International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 767-783, 2018.
[3] H. Fayazi, M. Moazzami, B. Fani, G Shahgholian, “A first swing stability improvement approach in microgrids with synchronous distributed generators”, International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, vol. 31, no. 4, Article Number: e12816, April 2021 (doi: 10.1002/2050-7038.12816).
[4] H Bisheh, B. Fani, G. Shahgholian, “A novel adaptive protection coordination scheme for radial distribution networks in the presence of distributed generation”, International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, vol. 31, no. 3, Article Number: e12779, March 2021 (doi: 10.1002/2050-7038.12779).
[5] S. Gorji, S. Zamanian, M. Moazzami, “Techno-Economic and Environmental Base Approach for Optimal Energy Management of Microgrids Using Crow Search Algorithm”, Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology, vol. 11, no. 43, pp. 49-68, Autumn 2020 (in Persian).
[6] S. Hashemi Zadeh, O. Zeidabadi Nejad, S. Hasani, A. Gharaveisi, G. Shahgholian, “Optimal DG placement for power loss reduction and improvement voltage profile using smart methods”, International Journal of Smart Electrical Engineering, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 141-147, Summer 2012.
[7] K.Maki, S. Repo, P. Jarventausta, “Effect of wind power based distributed generation on protection of distribution networks”, Proceeding of the IEEE/ICDPSP, vol. 1, pp. 327-330, Amsterdam, Netherlands, April 2004.
[8] M.P.Comech, M.Gracia, S.Borroy, M.T.Villen, “Protection in distributed generation", CIRCE (Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption) University of Zaragoza, Spain, pp.289-311, Feb. 2010 (doi: 10.577/8887).
[9] E.Coster, J.Myrzk, w.kling, “Effect of DG on distribution grid protection”, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands, pp.93-119, Feb. 2010 (doi: 10.5772/8880).
[10] P.Vermeyen, “Effect of distributed generation on fault detection and ripple control”, Ph.D Thesis, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Sept. 2008.
[11] N.Jenkins, R.Allen, P.Crossley, D.Kirschen, “Embedded generation”, Series 31, 2th Edn, IEE Power & Energy, London, 2000.
[12] M. Baran, I. El-Markabi, “Fault analysis on distribution feeders with distributed generation”, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 20, no. 4, pp.1757–1764, Nov. 2005 (doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2005.857940).
[13] L. Kumpulainen, K. Kauhaniemi, P. Verho, O. Vähämäki, "New requirements for system protection caused by distributed generation", Proceeding of the IEEE/CIRED, pp. 1-4, Turin, Italy, June 2005 (doi: 10.104­9/c­p:2­0­051183).
[14] H. Karimi, B. Fani, G. Shahgholian, “Coordinated protection scheme based on virtual impedance control for loop-based microgrids”, Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology, vol. 12, no. 46, pp. 15-32, Summer2021 (in Persian) (dor: 20.1001.1.23223871.1400.12.2.2.0).
[15] T.S. Ustun, C. Ozansoy, A. Zayegh, “Fault current coefficient andtime delay assignment for microgrid protection system with centralprotection unit” , IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 598–606, May 2013 (doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2012.2214489).
[16] M.S. Elbana, N. Abbasy, A. Meghed, N. Shaker, "µPMU-based smart adaptive protection scheme for microgrids", Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 887-898, July 2019 (doi: 10.1007/s40565-019-0533-6).
[17] H. ZhanC. WangY. WangX. YangX. ZhangC. WuY. Chen, "Relay protection coordination integrated optimal placement and sizing of distributed generation sources in distribution networks", IEEE Trans. on Smart Grid, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 55-65, Jan. 2016 (doi: 10.1109/TSG.2015.2420667).
[18] Z. Shuai, D. He, Z. Xiong, Z. Lei, Z.J. Shen, "Comparative study of short-circuit fault characteristics for vsc-based dc distribution networks with different distributed generators", IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 528-540, March 2019 (doi: 10.1109/JESTPE.2018.2834542).
[19] D.S. Kumar, D. Srinivasan, T. Reindl, "A fast and scalable protection scheme for distribution networks with distributed generation", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 67-75, Feb. 2016 (doi: 10.1109/­T­PWR­D.2015.2464107).
[20] I. Sadeghkhani, M.E. Hamedani-Golshan, J.M. Guerrero, A. Mehrizi-Sani, "A current limiting strategy to improve fault ride-through of inverter interfaced autonomous microgrids", IEEE Trans. on Smart Grid, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 2138-2148, Sept. 2017 (doi: 10.1109/TSG.2016.2517201).
[21] K.O. Oureilidis, C.S. Demoulias, "A fault clearing method in converter-dominated microgrids with conventional protection means", IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 4628-4640, June 2016 (doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2015.2476702).
[22] V.C. Nikolaidis, E. Papanikolaou, A.S. Safigianni, "A communication-assisted overcurrent protection scheme for radial distribution systems with distributed generation", IEEE Trans. on Smart Grid, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 114-123, Jan. 2016 (doi: 10.1109/TSG.2015.2411216).
[23] Z. Liu, C. Su, H.K. Høidalen, Z. Chen, "A multiagent system-based protection and control scheme for distribution system with distributed-generation integration", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 536-545, Feb. 2017 (doi: 10.1109/TPWRD.2016.2585579).
[24] R.K. Varma, S.A. Rahman, V. Atodaria, S. Mohan, T. Vanderheide, "Technique for fast detection of short circuit current in PV distributed generator", IEEE Power and Energy Technology Systems Journal, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 155-165, Dec. 2016 (doi: 10.1109/JPETS.2016.2592465).
[25] J.K. Tailor, A.H. Osman, "Restoration of fuse-recloser coordination in distribution system with high DG penetration", Proceeding of the IEEE/PES, pp. 1-8, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, July 2008 (doi: 10.1109/PES.200­8.4­59­6422).
[26] M. Ojaghi, Z. Sudi, J. Faiz, "Implementation of full adaptive technique to optimal coordination of overcurrent relays", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 235-244, Jan. 2013 (doi: 10.1109/TPWRD.201­2­.22­21483).
[27] P.H. Shah, B.R. Bhalja, “New adaptive digital relaying scheme to tackle recloser–fuse miscoordination during distributed generation interconnections”, IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution, vol.8, no.4, pp.682–688, April 2014 (doi: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2013.0222).
[28] H. Jo, S. Joo, K. Lee, "Optimal placement of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) for protection of an electric power system with distributed generations (DGs)", IEEE Trans. on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 23, no. 3, Artical Number 5600304, June 2013 (doi: 10.1109/TASC.2012.2232958).
[29] W. El-Khattam, T.S. Sidhu, "Restoration of directional overcurrent relay coordination in distributed genera­tio­n systems utilizing fault current limiter", IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 576-585, April 2008 (doi: 10.1109/TPWRD.2008.915778).
[30] A. Bidram, M. Hamedani-Golshan, A. Davoudi, "Capacitor design considering first swing stability of distributed generations", IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 1941-1948, Nov. 2012 (doi: 10.11­0­9/T­PWRS.2012.2193603).
[31] N. Ghasemkhani, R. Khalili, B. Zaker, G.B. Gharehpetian, "Effect of synchronous generator-based distributed generation resources on power system transient stability considering critical clearing time index", Proceeding of the IEEE/EPDC, pp. 40-45, Tehran, Iran, May 2018 (doi: 10.1109/EPDC.2018.8536275).
[32] I. Xyngi, A. Ishchenko, M. Popov, L.V. Sluis, "Transient stability analysis of a distribution network with distributed generators", IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 1102-1104, May 2009 (doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2008.2012280).
[33] A.A. Balyith, H.M. Sharaf, M. Shaaban, E.F. El-Saadany, H.H. Zeineldin, "Non-communication based time-current-voltage dual setting directional overcurrent protection for radial distribution systems with DG", IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 190572-190581, 2020 (doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3029818).
[34] N.B. Hartmann, R. C. dos Santos, A. P. Grilo, J.C.M. Vieira, "Hardware implementation and real-time evaluation of an ANN-based algorithm for anti-islanding protection of distributed generators", IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 5051-5059, June 2018 (doi: 10.1109/TIE.2017.2767524).
[35] A.S. Emhemed, R.M. Tumilty, N.K. Singh, G.M. Burt, J.R. McDonald, "Analysis of transient stability enhancement of lv-connected induction microgenerators by using resistive-type fault current limiters", IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 885-893, May 2010 (doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2009.2034859).
[36] B. Keyvani, H. Nafisi, H. Lesani, "Investigation on transient stability of an industrial network and relevant impact on over-current protection performance", Proceeding of the IEEE/EPDC, pp. 1-6, Kermanshah, Iran, April/May 2013 (doi: 10.1109/EPDC.2013.6565971).
[37] R. Razzaghi, M. Davarpanah, M. Sanaye-Pasand, "A novel protective scheme to protect small-scale synchronous generators against transient instability", IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1659-1667, April 2013 (doi: 10.1109/TIE.2012.2186773).
[38] T.S. Aghdam, H.K. Karegar, H.H. Zeineldin, "Transient stability constrained protection coordination for distribution systems with DG", IEEE Trans. on Smart Grid, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 5733-5741, Nov. 2018 (doi: 10.1109/TSG.2017.2695378).
[39] S. Mosavi, T. Kejani, H. Javadi, “Optimal setting of directional over-current relays in distribution networks considering transient stability”, International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 122-133, Jan. 2016 (doi: 10.1002/etep.2072).
[40] T.S. Aghdam, H.K. Karegar, H.H. Zeineldin, "Optimal coordination of double-inverse overcurrent relays for stable operation of DGs", IEEE Trans. on Industrial Informatics, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 183-192, Jan. 2019 (doi: 10.1109/TII.2018.2808264).
[41] P.P. Barker, R.W. De Mello, "Determining the impact of distributed generation on power systems. I. Radial distribution systems", Proceeding of the IEEE/PESS, vol. 3, pp. 1645-1656, Seattle, WA, USA , July 2000 (doi: 10.1109/PESS.2000.868775).
[42] Siemens. Electrical installation handbook Protection, ... control and electrical devices, 6th Edition 2010.
[43] IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems (IEEE Buff Book), IEEE Std 242-2001.